Studying the effects of long COVID

Since contracting COVID-19 again in January 2021, Ken Todd has by no means made a full restoration, making him one of many tens of millions who are suffering from “lengthy COVID.”

“In on a regular basis dialog individuals say, ‘Hey, how are you?’ Or in emails, ‘Hello, hope all is effectively.’ And people conversations and people questions are actually laborious for me to reply.”

CBS Information’ chief medical correspondent Dr. Jonathan LaPook requested, “What do you reply?”

“I say, ‘Effectively, I am doin’ all proper.'”

For Todd, “all proper” may be very a lot a relative time period. The CDC defines lengthy COVID as well being issues that persist greater than a month after a COVID an infection. For this 53-year-old media govt, lengthy COVID may be very a lot a reality of life. “It is very discouraging,” he mentioned. “I used to be doing every thing I used to be informed to do. The docs informed me, nevertheless, that I’d not see enchancment over the course of weeks, it might be extra like over the course of months. You realize, it’s extremely isolating. You are feeling such as you’re disconnected to the world. The world is shifting on with out you. And also you form of really feel invisible.”

“That is a horrible feeling,” mentioned LaPook.


Todd works for CBS’ mother or father firm, Paramount World, however we met him by means of Survivor Corps, a protracted COVID affected person assist group.

Todd was a cross-fit fanatic, however a month after contracting COVID, he discovered even a stroll within the park would exhaust him. However he didn’t expertise shortness of breath or chest pains: “Nope. Only a bizarre feeling. I went house and I slept for most likely a few hours, after which felt higher. However that was actually the start of realizing that one thing totally different is occurring right here.”

What’s been happening are the unresolved (and to outdoors appearances largely invisible) penalties of COVID-19. For Todd, meaning fatigue, dizziness, an incapability to control his physique temperature, and issue concentrating. These are among the many commonest signs – although chest ache, palpitations, and shortness of breath are additionally generally reported.

At NYU Langone Well being (the place LaPook is a professor of drugs), Dr. Leora Horwitz has gone from treating sufferers through the worst of the pandemic to looking for a method to diagnose and deal with lengthy COVID.

However, she says, you can’t diagnose lengthy COVID primarily based off a blood check, an X-ray, a CAT scan, an MRI, a mind scan or a bodily examination.

“You may think about how that will be disconcerting to someone who has some signs?” requested LaPook.

“Sure, certainly,” mentioned Horwitz. “The scientific group must shortly perceive what is going on on, must shortly make some standards – some diagnostic guidelines.”

Horwitz helps to information a $1 billion examine run by the Nationwide Institutes of Well being known as Recuperate, and its purpose is to be taught why so many individuals who contract COVID-19 are reporting long-term signs.

“I have been in analysis for 25 years. I’ve by no means seen a examine of this scale and this scope begin in such a brief period of time,” Horwitz mentioned.

“Why do you assume that is taking off faster than ordinary?”

“As a result of COVID is an emergency.”

Contemplate this: the Facilities for Illness Management studies greater than half of all Individuals have been contaminated with COVID-19, and as many as one-in-five contaminated adults have skilled a symptom suggestive of lengthy COVID. That is tens of tens of millions of individuals.

Right here are some things we do know:

  • The extra extreme and extended the preliminary expertise with COVID, the larger the chance of lengthy COVID;
  • Being vaccinated lowers the chance of extreme sickness and the chance of long-term results.

However greater than two years into the pandemic, researchers nonetheless have only a few stable solutions.

The NIH’S Dr. Walter Koroshetz is on the helm of the Recuperate examine. “The large shock in COVID has been people who find themselves by no means even that sick within the acute part which can be nonetheless having persistent issues.”

For Koroshetz, who focuses on illnesses of the nervous system, the mysteries of lengthy COVID current a well-known dilemma: “I am a neurologist. Numerous the sicknesses that we deal with, they do not have a therapy. Our job is to form of assist individuals get, you realize, as finest they’ll get by means of their sickness. That talent is critical now greater than ever.”

Researchers are honing in on some attainable causes of lengthy COVID, together with:

  • Lengthy-term injury from the preliminary sickness (reminiscent of irritation within the coronary heart, lungs, and blood vessels);
  • Disruption of the microbiome (the trillions of micro organism in our intestine which have wide-ranging results on our well being);
  • The immune system mistakenly attacking wholesome tissue after the virus is gone; and
  • An immune response to the stays of the COVID virus that may stay within the physique months after an preliminary an infection.

These final two theories level to similarities with different infections, reminiscent of Lyme and Epstein-Barr, which NYU-Langone’s Horwitz says may be troublesome to diagnose, similar to lengthy COVID. She mentioned, “I wish to be very clear about this: The signs and the illness are completely actual. We’re failing proper now as physicians in determining easy methods to determine that and easy methods to characterize it.”

LaPook requested, “I can think about that the tens of millions of individuals on the market who, for years, have been informed, ‘Oh, your persistent fatigue syndrome, your fibromyalgia, your persistent Lyme, it is in your head’ – they have been informed that incorrectly, they’re watching this and considering, See?,

“That is proper!” Horwitz replied.

When Dr. LaPook interviewed Camille Hlavka, of Queens, New York in April 2021she was struggling to breathe 4 months after contracting COVID, although docs mentioned her lungs appeared to operate usually.

“A yr in the past, your son, Reid, was two then?” LaPook mentioned. “You could not actually learn to him?”

“Yeah. I really feel some individuals would possibly say, ‘Oh, that is so small and it would not matter.’ However that is heartbreaking, you realize?” Hlavka mentioned. “You by no means wish to deprive your little one of one thing that they love.”

COVID-19 “long-haulers” address lasting virus signs


Since then, the 39-year-old Hlavka has made exceptional progress. Medicine and respiration workouts helped her run a 10k race final yr, and she or he’s in coaching for this fall’s New York Metropolis Marathon. Some sufferers really feel higher with bodily remedy and with drugs that relieve signs, however there aren’t any medicine but that particularly deal with lengthy COVID.

LaPook requested, “From a scale of 1 to 100, if 100% is the place you have been earlier than you bought COVID, the place do you assume you at the moment are?”

“I would say about 80-85%,” mentioned Hlavka. “To all people, I look, I really feel, I appear regular. However the inner battle that I really feel of, you realize, just a little little bit of loss or concern of getting older and the potential that this might worsen once more, and that is, you realize, worrying a few ‘what if.’ I believe all these little issues contribute to the 15%.”

“What would you prefer to say to individuals on the market who’re scuffling with lengthy COVID proper now?”

“I wish to say that life carries ahead,” she replied. “And, you realize, as laborious as it’s that it occurred to you, we’re alive. Hope is my message – hope.”

That sense of optimization is what propels Ken Todd as effectively. Although he studies feeling solely about 50 p.c again to his pre-COVID well being, he has improved his stamina by following a bodily remedy program developed by New York’s Mount Sinai Hospital.

And he lately volunteered for the NIH’s Recuperate examine. Giving assist to others, it appears, provides Todd hope for the longer term even when the current stays a battle.

“No matter I can do to assist the medical group determine this out, I need to have the ability to try this,” he mentioned. “It provides me objective to speak about my expertise. Everyone needs the pandemic to be over. The pandemic is much from over for me.”

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Story produced by Ed Forgotson. Editor: Carol Ross.

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